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  • gongshi

    Sometimes theoretical breakthrough benefits technology innovation

  • gongshi

    Perpetual motion machine is possible to be made[1]

    Abstract:

    This thesis, by means of the theory of the classic physics, has proved both Brown motion and permanent magnet neglected by people are actually related with the factual perpetual motion machine and it can get known with the interrelated expositions that the existing scientific concept negating the perpetual motion machine is not so absolutely non-mistaken, so another way can be utilized to establish fully brand-new theory of perpetual motion machine ……

    #FOREWORD

    [Conservative scientific concept disproves all the facts and views not in line with the existing theories while enterprising scientific concept pays attention to the delicate difference between the existing theory and the facts. Scientific theory is a relative truth, with an enterprising history for its progression. Thankful to respectable readers for your

    careful thinking, sensible distinguishing and generous advising, so fortunate indeed !]

    [The motion of matter is absolute and any matter are perpetual motion ones.* Since so, they have to continually absorb energy (the perpetual motion machine of secondary category is permitted to do so) and continually do work (however all the work they have done do not tally with the need of people), and why a perpetual motion machine can not be made ?]

    [In the vast cosmos there are countless work processes, though they are complicatedly mingled, boundless, rising one after another and never come to the end, the total energy does not get lost even a little bit. WORK DOES NOT CONSUME ENERGY! Why the theory of perpetual motion machine can not come into being?]

    [As of the mechanical efficiency: the cosmos is infinitely great; a perpetual motion machine tends to be infinitely great; while general engines are less than one.]

    [The so said manufacture of a perpetual motion machine is nothing but to connect one “holding good for all time” energy transmitting chains !]

    [Each case of the factual perpetual motion machines mentioned in this thesis is independent and, by confirming only one of them, it comes possible to accept the argument that a perpetual motion machine can be made.]

    __________________________________________________________

    Note of [perpetual motion matter]:

    More often than not, people thought it as an answer without any objection for the mechanical energy of any static matters on the surface of a celestial body (such as a stone on the ground) to be zero. [But there is no such a matter in the cosmos as having an absolute zero mechanical energy !] Let’s take it as an example for a stone on the surface of the moon (it is always in motion relatively to countless celestial bodies—-that is to say it has the mechanical energy) to do work for the sea water on the earth, it can make the tide slightly increased day by day and it is also a perpetual motion matter constantly absorbing energy while continually doing work (an inexorable law surely followed by any accidental phenomena). However the absolutely motionless viewpoint makes the theory of perpetual motion machine vividly portrayed covered with a layer of mystical veil ( That is why various perpetual motion machines at present are not properly entitled, just as people had never thought it was air for them to breathe before they got to know it). [Let’s reveal the truth, really a very simple answer!]

    [Index of the topics in this thesis]:

    一, Query on the negation

    二, Brown perpetual motion machine

    三, Permanent magnet perpetual motion machine

    四, Definition correcting

    五, Riddle of permanent magnetic energy

    六, Physical system of perpetual motion machine

    七, Optimistic inference

    #TEXT

    [一, QUERY ON NEGATION]

    It is held with the theory of modern natural science: [it is impossible for a perpetual motion machine to be made] ! Let’s see some related words of this viewpoint of negation.

    A clause in “Ci Hai” (a Chinese complex dictionary of the most scale)—-[Perpetual motion machine]: [A fantastic engine never to be possibly made]. Someone tries to make [such a machine as being able to do work permanently without consuming any energy], this runs counter to the first law of thermodynamics, hence it is entitled as [a perpetual motion machine of the first category]; someone also tries to make [an engine which continually absorb energy from some huge physical system (such as sea water, air) and transforms it into mechanical energy under the condition without temperature difference], this runs counter to the second law of thermodynamics, thus being named as [a perpetual motion machine of the second category].

    In addition, the first law of thermodynamics as everyone knows can be expressed as [The quantity of heat of a physical system transmitted from outside equals the sum of the increment of the internal energy of the system and the work the system has done outwards. Sometimes it can also mean the perpetual motion machine of the first category can never be made.] and [the second saying of the second law of thermodynamics comes like this [any of the engines in heating power circulation is unable to transform the all received quantity of heat into mechanical energy (that is to say the perpetual motion machine of the second category can never be made)]. ….. and so on.

    It has been so asked for many centuries as: [Is it possible for the perpetual motion machine to be made?]. This initial but puzzled question can also be so expressed: [Is it possible for the physical system without energy input to do work permanently?]

    Here comes the reply from the modern science: [ Every process in the natural world follows the law of energy conservation and conversion and a physical system, when it wants to do work for the outside world, needs to consume the energy of its own or get the supplement of energy from others, therefore it is impossible for the said machine to be made.] From the formula of the first law of thermodynamics: Q=∆E+A, A means [the work the system has done outwards].

    However, “to do work for the outside world” is not the sole directionality a physical system takes when it does work, so with this reply there is a fault taking a lopsided view as the whole lot!

    Because [ the internal energy of a physical system keeps unchanged when it does work internally upon the law of energy conservation, so it does not need to consume the energy of its own or get the supplement of energy from others.] Think it over—-is it just the same for both isolated gas and liquid physical systems thermally balanced with the outside world to do work for the Brown particles inside of them ! Which can be called as the perpetual motion machine of the first category without energy consumption and doing work permanently—-[Brown perpetual motion machine]! (Touched upon in the second text of this thesis).

    Moreover: the energy dissipated when a physical system is doing work can also be returned to it—-another error just looking ahead without the behind!

    Because [ when a physical system does work for the outside world, an intermediary physical system can continually absorb the dissipated energy and return the equal one to it. Therefore the physical system can not only supplement itself with the dissipated energy, but also does not need to consume the one of its own or get the supplement of energy from others.] Think it over that the magnetic field of a permanent magnet in an isolated air with the status unchanged can exist forever and, just like the electromagnetic field, continually absorb and output electromagnetic energy (touched upon in (1) of the fifth text of this thesis) (it is also said upon the modern science: the magnetic field of the permanent magnet has the same essence as that of an electromagnetic field). It is just the way to untie the [fast knot] that the perpetual motion machine of the second category is impossible to be made for the permanent magnet to [absorb energy] under the condition without temperature difference (or with the status of the physical system remained unchanged)! Accordingly, the [permanent magnet perpetual motion machine]—-a perpetual motion machine of the second category with energy supplied by a permanent magnet becomes an example of this train of thought (touched upon in both third and fifth texts of this thesis). The air mentioned here is an intermediary physical system and the permanent magnet can surely do work just as an electric magnet does while needs no power supply and transmit the dissipated energy to the air.

    [二, BROWN PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE]

    [calculating problem] There is a 4L long water contained closed straight glass tube horizontally placed in a constant temperature surroundings. Slowly put a kind of powder uneasy to subside and of a mass as M into the sole hole on the upper of the middle part of the tube, the powder in Brown motion spreads all the time (with the average acceleration of the grain motion to be a). Evaluate the approximate value W of the useful work necessary for the water to do for the powder when a suspension liquid is formed with the powder is evenly arranged inside of the water.

    [Solution:] For evaluating the approximate value of the useful work, L may be taken as the average value of the displacement of each grain formed when the water does work for it.

    ∵ Average force given to a grain: f=ma (m is the mass

    of the grain).

    ∴ Average value of the useful work the water does for the

    grain: w=fL=maL

    Thus the evaluated approximate value of the useful work done by the water for the powder is: W≈MaL (this value is much less than that of the real work).

  • gongshi

    Perpetual motion machine is possible to be made[3]

    ……

    ……

    [五, RIDDLE OF PERMANENT MAGNETIC ENERGY]

    Is it true for a permanent magnet perpetual motion machine to do work without an energy source? Not at all ! The permanent magnet’s field has an energy source of its own.

    [(1) Field of input and output energy]

    It is thought the [magnetic therapeutic device] does not output energy at curing, just like the earth does not output mechanical energy when it attracts a static matter. The permanent magnet’s field is one actually to output magnetic energy continually, which can be approved through he following experiments:

    Let n (n=20, 21, 22, ……→∞) pieces of steel strips contacted with the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet one by one and all magnetized, then it can be made sure: the energy required in the magnetization of each steel strip comes no doubt from the permanent magnet. Presently it may be confirmed that [the permanent magnet’s field is one to continually output magnetic energy].

    Someone thought the energy, in this experiment, required to magnetize the steel strip is the one transformed from the dynamic energy produced when the steel strip is attracted by the magnetic pole. As a matter of fact, the dynamic energy is completely transformed into vibration energy, heat energy etc. in the process for the steel strip to be attracted and collided by the magnetic pole and thus dissipated.

    In addition: the energy of the permanent magnet’s field before the experiment is clearly less than the sum of both energy of the magnetic field of the greatly magnetized steel strips after the experiment and energy of the permanent magnet’s field (this is equal to that before the experiment). Such a conclusion would surely come out as there is no conservation of energy if it is held there is no external supplement for the energy of the permanent magnet’s field. This is a reduction to absurdity, from which it is also made known: [the permanent magnet’s field must be a field continually getting the supplement of magnetic energy].

    Hence [the permanent magnet’s field is a field continually getting the supplement of magnetic energy and continually outputting magnetic energy].

    [(2) Source of outside particle energy]

    [The energy source of the permanent magnet’s field may be the particle energy of an outside physical system]. The particle energy means the energy available with the particle motion of a substance, as: thermal motion energy of molecules, electromagnetic energy (available due to the existence of the electron, proton etc. electric charges and the electron, proton, neutron, atomic nucleus etc. magnetic moments ), and so on.

    Known from the electromagnetic theory: […… once there is variation with the electric field or electromagnetic field at a place (Note: here it may mean the molecule current directly related to the electron of fluctuation), whatever the cause is, this variation can not be limited at one place and always propagates around at a light velocity, forming an electromagnetic wave ……], so does the molecule current of any substances.

    It is certified through the fact the metal (the inside magnetic induction intensity as zero) which gets to the [ground state] through the adiabatic demagnetization etc. methods can quickly reset the inside magnetic field once it takes energy exchange again with non-magnetic physical system outside]: [the particle energy of an outside non-magnetic physical system is surely able to be changed into a metal electromagnetic energy]. Meanwhile, the permanent magnet in the [ground state] recovers the permanent magnet’s field with the same method can also be used to certify: [the particle energy of an outside non-magnetic physical system is surely able to be changed into the magnetic energy of a permanent magnet] (In the magnetic phenomenon there is such an possibility as the mutual conversion or supplement between heat and magnet, which can be revealed from the property of the heat discharge at magnetization and the heat absorbance at demagnetization of a paramagnetic substance).

    [(3) Permanent magnet [excitation coil]]*

    All magnetic domains of a permanent magnet are like a natural [electrified miniature excitation coil]. Magnetization makes both magnetic domain and molecule current ranked in a common direction to form a solid [electrified implicit great excitation coil] and thus showing the macro-magnetic field. Why both permanent magnet’s field and electromagnetic field have the same nature is just because of the special [excitation coil].

    It is often thought a non-magnetic physical system is unable to become an electromagnetic source, while the fact is the particle’s electromagnetic energy, when going into a permanent magnet via a non-magnetic physical system, makes its magnet clearly shown is just similar to that a constant current, when going into the excitation coil of an electromagnet via a non-magnetic battery, makes its magnet shown !

    It is so marvelous that: the physical system around (as air) keeps itself unchanged (the constant state of it can be confirmed upon the constant magnetic flux potential of the permanent magnet) when it continues to provide the magnetic energy necessary for the permanent magnet to do work. Maybe this is the proper answer: the energy the permanent magnet has absorbed will always be equally dissipated into the physical system around —- the intermediary physical system equating to the input and output energy (touched upon in the text [一]. It is a process of entropy reduction worth looking to for the permanent magnet to absorb non-ordered electromagnetic energy to form an ordered magnetic field.

    By contrast to the revised definition of the perpetual motion machine of the second category: [an engine able to cause variation of the status of any substantial system not because of continual energy absorbance and do work permanently], the permanent magnetic perpetual motion machine can absorb magnetic energy from the state unchanged air etc. physical system to continually do work, therefore it is a certified perpetual motion machine of the second category.

    The energy source of the permanent magnet does not come from air only, the space for it to be used is available almost everywhere. No resistance and calorific effect with the molecule current is the superconducting phenomenon under a normal temperature. The development of the permanent magnetic perpetual motion machine will make it conspicuous.

    ____________________________________________________

    Note: *[Permanent magnet [excitation coil]]:

    It comes known from this: a permanent magnet can not output energy [with nothing], what is the source of its energy just comes from the particle energy of the physical systems around it. However the blindness to the magnetic phenomenon of a permanent magnet often causes people fall into various misunderstandings, such as: 1. the permanent magnet can not output magnetic energy; 2. the energy of its magnetic field is reduced after outputting energy; 3. it can continually output energy but needs no energy source; ….. and so on.

    [六, PHYSICAL SYSTEM OF PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE]

    From the above examples, exploration of the corresponding physical systems forming the allocation of the perpetual motion machine can be done: i.e. [the physical system of energy source and the physical system of energy conversion of the perpetual motion machine] etc. other allocating ones and they are of the similar relationship between the engine, converter and working machine of an ordinary machine. The physical system of energy source means the engine (known from the definitions of the original perpetual motion machine and the one of the second category that the perpetual motion machine just means an [engine] or perpetual motion machine while the physical system of energy conversion and other allocations mean the converter and working machine. First set forth the definitions for these two physical systems, since they are the key parts in the manufacture of the perpetual motion machine:

    [(1) Physical system of energy source of perpetual motion machine ([perpetual source system] for short) —- a physical system able to cause variation of the state of other ones not because of continual energy absorbance, keep the status of itself unchanged and constantly output the energy to the physical system of energy conversion of the perpetual motion machine].

    [(2) Physical system of energy conversion of perpetual motion machine ([perpetual conversion system] for short) —- a physical system able to absorb energy from the physical system of energy source of the perpetual motion machine and transfer or convert it to meet with the necessity to do work].

    The actions of these two physical systems are required to the formation of the above examples of the perpetual motion machine, as:

    [Stirrer] takes air etc. physical systems around it as the perpetual source system while the water in the tank as the perpetual conversion system. Air etc. physical systems transmit energy via the water in the tank to do work for Brown particles (the thermal motion energy of the molecules onside of the water will be surely replaced completely by the outside one after a period of time and the one to do work for the Brown particles comes from air etc. physical systems. This is the energy exchange when the physical systems keep the status of themselves unchanged) is satisfactory with the requirement on the definition of the perpetual source system.

    [supplier of magnetic energy] also takes air etc. physical systems around it as the perpetual source system (touched upon (3) of the fifth text of this thesis) and the permanent magnetic stator as the perpetual conversion system. Of course it also needs a motor or working machine etc. other allocations to work together.

    Known from the above-mentioned, the titles of perpetual motion machines are often at will, that means they are those related to the perpetual source system, perpetual conversion system or other allocating physical systems or working natures while not necessary to be the one of the perpetual source system (i.e. engine or perpetual motion machine).

    The perpetual conversion system is a must for the perpetual source system to convert energy and, without it, the purpose for the perpetual motion machine to do work would never come to.

    Each of the [isolated systems] seemingly in a balanced state (such as the air above-mentioned etc.) is of【such a feature as coexistence and offset of both energy [input] and [output] processes】—- 【Coexistence】makes it able to absorb energy from other physical systems as well as provide a perpetual motion machine with energy; 【Offset】makes it able to keep the status of itself and some physical systems unchanged. Therefore it can be elected as the candidate physical system of the perpetual source system.

    When the perpetual motion machine works, it allows the state of the perpetual source system to be varied caused not due to the energy absorbance of the perpetual conversion system; as well as those of the perpetual conversion system and other allocating physical systems. This does not go against the definition of the perpetual motion machine.

    For instance: the temperature variation with the perpetual source system of the supplier of magnetic energy, i.e. the air etc., due to weather and the motor’s dissipation of heat; the variation of the internal magnetic flux of the perpetual conversion system, i.e. the permanent magnetic stator; or temperature variation with the motor, cable leak or the driven lathe (and processed parts as well) etc. variations of the status of physical systems, all these can not deny the supplier of magnetic energy is a perpetual motion machine.

    In general, most of the perpetual motion machines are the environmental-protection machines of a high grade !

    Possibility of theory is the precursor of practice, so upon the above-mentioned: it is not so difficult to make the perpetual motion machine when both [perpetual source system] and [perpetual conversion system] conforming with the requirements have been found or made. That means: [the perpetual motion machine can be no doubt made] !

    [七, OPTIMISTIC INFERENCE]

    With the feature of the [isolated system] in a balanced state revealed in the above text, an optimistic inference can get: [those isolated physical systems able to naturally and constantly keep their dynamic balanced state can all become the perpetual motion machine’s physical system of energy source]. And the key factor is at whether people can master and utilize the way for the physical system of this kind to output energy (which can be seen from the examples of the perpetual motion machine above-mentioned) !

    The so called natural and constant keeping means this physical system can hold its state for a long term in the natural environment where the perpetual motion machine is used.

    It is said in the note of the foreword that the stone on the moon can supply tidal energy to have people looking at the gorgeous galaxy in the firmament. After God applied the first driving force, the dynamic balanced state in the conservation of the total mechanical energy quantity has been maintained in its movement ! Can the moving celestial physical system—-an isolated system in the cosmos—-become a perpetual source system ?

    In fact, it is exactly the effect of a perpetual motion machine for the [earth-moon system] in the celestial body to, with the help of the tide, make the generator unit moving while keep the total mechanical energy quantity of its own unchanged !

    With the earth-moon system as the perpetual source system and the sea water as the perpetual conversion system, the generator and other allocations are able to finish the task, with the help of the tide, to continually do work, hence the earth-moon system, the tidal generator unit and the corresponding allocations form a perpetual motion machine. It was really made long ago, i.e. the [perpetual motion generator]—-[sixth of the factual perpetual motion machine].

    (The earth-moon system outputs ordered mechanical energy, but there is no such a physical system of ordered energy source that would vary the state of itself. The celestial movement is related to the phenomenon of entropy reduction, please refer to the corresponding portion of some related theses publicized later).

    In the history of science: [today is such an instance as making and using perpetual motion machine and, meanwhile, permitting the indubitable negation toward it to coexist!]

    # CONCLUDING REMARKS

    The meaning perpetual motion machine theory gives to a dynamically balanced isolated system is no longer death but doing work forever, while the conventional engine does work only with the energy output from a physical system varying the state of itself.

    In other words: [the so-called manufacture of a perpetual motion machine is nothing but to connect a piece of energy transmitting chains [holding good for all time] !

    The conclusion for the perpetual motion machine is possible to be made conforms with the energy conservation law and, even if it means to revise the law of thermodynamics and other related theories, is also the perfection to the conservation law and other theories. Actually, the energy conservation law is exactly the basis of the possibly made conclusion.

    All presented in this thesis are merely a limited view and a brick to attract a jade, anxiously hope men of insight to work hard mutually to make the boundless future of the “world of perpetual motion machine” of bright prospects !

    (END)

  • gongshi

    Perpetual motion machine is possible to be made[2]

    ……

    ……

    [Solution:] For evaluating the approximate value of the useful work, L may be taken as the average value of the displacement of each grain formed when the water does work for it.

    ∵ Average force given to a grain: f=ma (m is the mass

    of the grain).

    ∴ Average value of the useful work the water does for the

    grain: w=fL=maL

    Thus the evaluated approximate value of the useful work done by the water for the powder is: W≈MaL (this value is much less than that of the real work).

    Analysis: with the set problem, in the process a suspension liquid is formed, the value of the real work done by the water: A’ >W≈MaL.

    Thereafter the water keeps doing work to hold the Brown motion of the gains. Each of the grains (the Brown particle can be a macroscopic object, even as big as the small mirror on a sensitive ammeter, it may also be collided by the molecules of the medium around [as air] and caused with slender quivering to get in the Brown motion) can be as an extra-miniature car in permanent safe driving, the mileage of which may be quickly increased along with the lapse of time. So it comes surely: A’ →∞.

    With water as an engine to contrast the definition of the perpetual motion machine of the first category [a machine which can do work all the time without consuming any energy]: due to the water temperature keeps unchanged, so Q=0, the increment of the internal energy ∆E=0, hence it is a physical system without consuming energy. But the value of the inward work: A’ →∞, i.e. doing work forever. This phenomenon for the water able to get back the dissipated energy without any loss produced after it does work for the grains not only settles such a difficult problem on the perpetual motion machine as there is no way to get the scattered internal energy together again, but also sets forth an objection to the concept to do work must consume energy.

    Conclusion: [this engine is the perpetual motion machine of the first category conforming with the requirement].

    Various effects of the perpetual motion machine can be easily found out from the well-known [Brown motion] ! As:

    In a kitchen room there is full of the air in the status of thermodynamic balance. Every time when gasoline leakage occurs, the molecules of the air in thermal motion will do work for wisps of toxic gas to dispel it. This is just the [perpetual motion toxic gas remover] ! —- [first of the factual perpetual motion machines].

    The water in a swimming pool in the status of thermodynamic balance does work for the disinfectant (such as bleaching powder etc.), every time when it is put into the water, to spread it. This is just the [perpetual motion disinfectant stirrer] ([stirrer] for short) —- [second of the factual perpetual motion machines].

    These examples belong to: [Brown perpetual motion machine] !

    [三, PERMANENT MAGNETIC PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE]

    Please have a look at some examples of the existing perpetual motion machines not correctly entitled up till now:

    [(1) Perpetual motion magnetic therapeutic device:]

    Use of a magnetic therapeutic device made of a permanent magnet ([permanent magnet]—-an object of the permanent magnetic property, such as the magnetized hard magnetic alloy, permanent magnetic steel etc.) can carry out disease treatment for patients with [magnetic therapy]. The static magnetic field of the permanent magnet endlessly outputs magnetic energy [ it can cause a series variation on the nerve, body fluid, metabolism etc. of a body, functions invigorating the circulation of blood to remove blood stasis, subduing swelling and alleviating pain, relieving inflammation, tranquilizing the mind etc. and can be used to cure various painful diseases, soft tissue injury, inflammation, anal and intestine sickness and so on].

    People have so far not found out the energy source for the permanent magnetic therapeutic device, however, it is a fact for it able to output magnetic energy to cure diseases (touched upon in (1) of the fifth text of this thesis). It seems for the permanent magnet is to output energy [with nothing]. Another perpetual motion machine! It may be called as: [perpetual motion magnetic therapeutic device]—-third of the factual perpetual motion machines].

    [(2) Perpetual motion supplier of magnetic energy:]

    As a matter of fact, a permanent magnet often plays the role to output energy [with nothing]. When used by a motor to replace the electrified stator winding, the stator of a permanent magnet can, just like the stator winding, output magnetic energy without need of the electric energy to the stator winding supplied from a power and the output magnetic energy can be changed into a portion of the dynamic energy the motor outputs, hence the permanent magnetic stator is [a perpetual motion machine in motors]*: [perpetual motion supplier of magnetic energy] ([supplier of magnetic energy] for short) —-[fourth of the factual perpetual motion machines].

    [(3) Perpetual motion magnet charger:]

    Where comes the energy for an electric magnet of a stable and constant current excited coil to make a ferromagnetic material magnetized ? The answer is beyond doubt: from a power supply. However, no [power supply] is required for a permanent magnet to do the same job instead of an electric one. So it is also a perpetual motion machine: [perpetual motion magnet charger]—-[fifth of the factual perpetual motion machines].

    It is necessary to take a discussion on the definition of the perpetual motion machine of the second category to correctly entitle the permanent magnet perpetual motion machine.

    ______________________________________________________

    Note: *[a perpetual motion machine in motors]:

    From the fact that both stator and rotor consume electricity when a DC motor outputs mechanical energy, it results in:

    W1+W2=W’1+W’2+w1+w2 (1)

    Of which: W1—electric energy the stator consumes;

    W2—electric energy the rotor consumes.

    W1 is changed into useful work W’1 and useless work w1;

    W2 is changed into useful work W’2 and useless work w2. Upon the law of energy conservation, there should be:

    W1 = W’1 + w1 and W2 = W’2 + w2 (2)

    By replacing the electricity consuming stator with the permanent magnetic stator of the same magnetic field, it results in:

    0+W2=W’1+W’2+w1+w2 (3)

    Of which: 0—the permanent magnetic stator does not consume electricity, but in the case to replace the original stator, the magnetic energy will be changed into useful work W’1 and useless work w1.

    Now with (3)-(2), it results in:

    0=W’1+w1

    i.e.: the permanent magnetic stator does not consume electricity while outputs useful work, really a perpetual motion machine in motors.

    [四, DEFINITION CORRECTING]

    The perpetual motion machine of the second category is [an engine able to, without any temperature difference, continually absorb quantity of heat from a huge substantial system (such as sea water, air) and then change it into mechanical energy].

    Since there is the definition for the perpetual motion machine of the second category which can absorb one form of energy—-quantity of heat, why there is no definition for the machine of the same category which can absorb an energy of other forms?

    Here comes a clear defect with this question in the definition of the perpetual motion machine of the second category: lack of the complete induction to any energy forms similar to the one of the first category. Partialness is shown to use it whether for supporting or negating the conclusion that the perpetual motion machine is possible to be made.

    Therefore here comes the inference from special to general necessary for it and it is worked out [ revised definition of the perpetual motion machine of the second category: an engine able to cause variation of the status of any substantial system not because of continual energy absorbance and do work permanently].

    Is this revised definition correct ? Check if it has an accurate function of discrimination (just as only a correct definition of a fruit can be held as the base to distinguish fruits or non-fruits) ! It can become known to contrast each of the following engines absorbing energy to the sentence in the revised definition: [cause variation of the status of any substantial system not because of energy absorbance]:

    (1) Consuming diesel fuel, coal etc. for a tractor or a steam locomotive engine to do work—-causing variation of the status of the substantial system of energy source, non-perpetual motion machine.

    (2) Power generation of the hydraulic generator upon the water in a reservoir etc.—-causing variation of the status of the substantial system of water storage, non-perpetual motion machine.

    (3) Manpower waterwheel, livestock-power millstone turning etc.—-causing variation of the substantial system of the biochemical reaction inside of a human body or animal, non-perpetual motion machine.

    (4) Power generation with solar energy etc.—-unable to provide energy unless the status of the substantial system inside of the sun varied (as nuclear reactor etc.), non-perpetual motion machine.

    …… and so on.

    Is there any other non-perpetual motion machines which can break through the [strict frontier guard] of the revised definition and sneak into the [family of the perpetual motion machine] ? [With this the accuracy of the revised definition can be notably certified].

    The former definition (now regarded as the concept of species of the revised definition) is insufficient to be used as the foundation for this discrimination because of its limitations (just like the apple’s definition, the concept of species of fruits, it can not be used to distinguish between fruits and non-fruits).

    The work-out of the revised definition is helpful for distinguishing and developing the perpetual motion machines of multiple forms of energy.

  • gongshi

    Perpetual motion machine is possible to be made[1]

    Abstract:

    This thesis, by means of the theory of the classic physics, has proved both Brown motion and permanent magnet neglected by people are actually related with the factual perpetual motion machine and it can get known with the interrelated expositions that the existing scientific concept negating the perpetual motion machine is not so absolutely non-mistaken, so another way can be utilized to establish fully brand-new theory of perpetual motion machine ……

    #FOREWORD

    [Conservative scientific concept disproves all the facts and views not in line with the existing theories while enterprising scientific concept pays attention to the delicate difference between the existing theory and the facts. Scientific theory is a relative truth, with an enterprising history for its progression. Thankful to respectable readers for your

    careful thinking, sensible distinguishing and generous advising, so fortunate indeed !]

    [The motion of matter is absolute and any matter are perpetual motion ones.* Since so, they have to continually absorb energy (the perpetual motion machine of secondary category is permitted to do so) and continually do work (however all the work they have done do not tally with the need of people), and why a perpetual motion machine can not be made ?]

    [In the vast cosmos there are countless work processes, though they are complicatedly mingled, boundless, rising one after another and never come to the end, the total energy does not get lost even a little bit. WORK DOES NOT CONSUME ENERGY! Why the theory of perpetual motion machine can not come into being?]

    [As of the mechanical efficiency: the cosmos is infinitely great; a perpetual motion machine tends to be infinitely great; while general engines are less than one.]

    [The so said manufacture of a perpetual motion machine is nothing but to connect one “holding good for all time” energy transmitting chains !]

    [Each case of the factual perpetual motion machines mentioned in this thesis is independent and, by confirming only one of them, it comes possible to accept the argument that a perpetual motion machine can be made.]

    __________________________________________________________

    Note of [perpetual motion matter]:

    More often than not, people thought it as an answer without any objection for the mechanical energy of any static matters on the surface of a celestial body (such as a stone on the ground) to be zero. [But there is no such a matter in the cosmos as having an absolute zero mechanical energy !] Let’s take it as an example for a stone on the surface of the moon (it is always in motion relatively to countless celestial bodies—-that is to say it has the mechanical energy) to do work for the sea water on the earth, it can make the tide slightly increased day by day and it is also a perpetual motion matter constantly absorbing energy while continually doing work (an inexorable law surely followed by any accidental phenomena). However the absolutely motionless viewpoint makes the theory of perpetual motion machine vividly portrayed covered with a layer of mystical veil ( That is why various perpetual motion machines at present are not properly entitled, just as people had never thought it was air for them to breathe before they got to know it). [Let’s reveal the truth, really a very simple answer!]

    [Index of the topics in this thesis]:

    一, Query on the negation

    二, Brown perpetual motion machine

    三, Permanent magnet perpetual motion machine

    四, Definition correcting

    五, Riddle of permanent magnetic energy

    六, Physical system of perpetual motion machine

    七, Optimistic inference

    #TEXT

    [一, QUERY ON NEGATION]

    It is held with the theory of modern natural science: [it is impossible for a perpetual motion machine to be made] ! Let’s see some related words of this viewpoint of negation.

    A clause in “Ci Hai” (a Chinese complex dictionary of the most scale)—-[Perpetual motion machine]: [A fantastic engine never to be possibly made]. Someone tries to make [such a machine as being able to do work permanently without consuming any energy], this runs counter to the first law of thermodynamics, hence it is entitled as [a perpetual motion machine of the first category]; someone also tries to make [an engine which continually absorb energy from some huge physical system (such as sea water, air) and transforms it into mechanical energy under the condition without temperature difference], this runs counter to the second law of thermodynamics, thus being named as [a perpetual motion machine of the second category].

    In addition, the first law of thermodynamics as everyone knows can be expressed as [The quantity of heat of a physical system transmitted from outside equals the sum of the increment of the internal energy of the system and the work the system has done outwards. Sometimes it can also mean the perpetual motion machine of the first category can never be made.] and [the second saying of the second law of thermodynamics comes like this [any of the engines in heating power circulation is unable to transform the all received quantity of heat into mechanical energy (that is to say the perpetual motion machine of the second category can never be made)]. ….. and so on.

    It has been so asked for many centuries as: [Is it possible for the perpetual motion machine to be made?]. This initial but puzzled question can also be so expressed: [Is it possible for the physical system without energy input to do work permanently?]

    Here comes the reply from the modern science: [ Every process in the natural world follows the law of energy conservation and conversion and a physical system, when it wants to do work for the outside world, needs to consume the energy of its own or get the supplement of energy from others, therefore it is impossible for the said machine to be made.] From the formula of the first law of thermodynamics: Q=∆E+A, A means [the work the system has done outwards].

    However, “to do work for the outside world” is not the sole directionality a physical system takes when it does work, so with this reply there is a fault taking a lopsided view as the whole lot!

    Because [ the internal energy of a physical system keeps unchanged when it does work internally upon the law of energy conservation, so it does not need to consume the energy of its own or get the supplement of energy from others.] Think it over—-is it just the same for both isolated gas and liquid physical systems thermally balanced with the outside world to do work for the Brown particles inside of them ! Which can be called as the perpetual motion machine of the first category without energy consumption and doing work permanently—-[Brown perpetual motion machine]! (Touched upon in the second text of this thesis).

    Moreover: the energy dissipated when a physical system is doing work can also be returned to it—-another error just looking ahead without the behind!

    Because [ when a physical system does work for the outside world, an intermediary physical system can continually absorb the dissipated energy and return the equal one to it. Therefore the physical system can not only supplement itself with the dissipated energy, but also does not need to consume the one of its own or get the supplement of energy from others.] Think it over that the magnetic field of a permanent magnet in an isolated air with the status unchanged can exist forever and, just like the electromagnetic field, continually absorb and output electromagnetic energy (touched upon in (1) of the fifth text of this thesis) (it is also said upon the modern science: the magnetic field of the permanent magnet has the same essence as that of an electromagnetic field). It is just the way to untie the [fast knot] that the perpetual motion machine of the second category is impossible to be made for the permanent magnet to [absorb energy] under the condition without temperature difference (or with the status of the physical system remained unchanged)! Accordingly, the [permanent magnet perpetual motion machine]—-a perpetual motion machine of the second category with energy supplied by a permanent magnet becomes an example of this train of thought (touched upon in both third and fifth texts of this thesis). The air mentioned here is an intermediary physical system and the permanent magnet can surely do work just as an electric magnet does while needs no power supply and transmit the dissipated energy to the air.

    [二, BROWN PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE]

    [calculating problem] There is a 4L long water contained closed straight glass tube horizontally placed in a constant temperature surroundings. Slowly put a kind of powder uneasy to subside and of a mass as M into the sole hole on the upper of the middle part of the tube, the powder in Brown motion spreads all the time (with the average acceleration of the grain motion to be a). Evaluate the approximate value W of the useful work necessary for the water to do for the powder when a suspension liquid is formed with the powder is evenly arranged inside of the water.